Filtration aids are used in the separation of gypsum from phosphoric acid liquor, produced during the production of phosphoric acid from finely ground phosphate rock. These aids are characterized as containing sulfonate and acrylamide. Improved flocculation efficiency and filtration of carbonate leached uranium ore pulps are obtained by incorporating hydroxyalkyl guars in the filter feed slurry.
Filter garnet is used as a filtration media in conjunction with sand, gravel and occasionally coal. It is used in the highest specification three layer multimedia filters in which the decreasing grain size in the direction of flow produces the ideal conditions for high filtration rates and long filter runs.
Sand filtration is widely used and very robust method to eliminate suspended solids from water. The filtration medium consists of a multiple layer of sand with a variety in size and specific gravity. Sand filters can be supplied in different sizes and materials both hand operated or fully automatically. A special application of a sand filter is the removal of iron in surface and ground or well water. An iron removal installation consists of a aeration to oxidise and precipitate the iron and manganese, followed by removal of the precipitated particles with the sand filter.
Fin Actuator has an active span of 0.32 m. This actuation is provided by a 6 bar pneumatic source, coupled to three proportional valves, adjusting the input pressures. The deflected actuator is modeled as a curve of constant radius. It also presents a novel control problem in that the entire structure undergoes elastic deformation with no joints to control or measure. It consists of eight equally spaced PBAs arranged in a series along a mounting rail. Three proportional valves are used per PBA, enabling individual control of 3-d movements. The PBAs bend to act in a similar manner to the fin rays and are interconnected by an elastic material, acting as the fish fin membrane. The membrane currently used has been fabricated from a single sheet of two-way stretch Lycra, folded in half with a pouch created for each fin ray. Each sensor is a thin-walled aluminum pillar with a total of 12 strain gauges attached to its outer cylinder surface. The whole device is firmly attached inside a test tank.