Monorail railway system uses cars that run on a single rail. Typically the rail is run overhead and the cars are either suspended from it or run above it. Driving power is transmitted from the cars to the track by means of wheels that rotate horizontally, making contact with the rail between its upper and lower flanges. One of the principal advantages of a monorail is the relative simplicity of its track in comparison with that of a standard railway. There are two types of monorails, straddle-beam and suspended monorails. The most common type of monorail in use today is the straddle-beam monorail in which the train straddles a reinforced concrete beam in the range of two to three feet wide. A rubber-tired carriage contacts the beam on the top and both sides for traction and to stabilize the vehicle.
Mooring Systems are used to hold buoys, ships or plat forms in position during certain operations. This dominantly refers to the three translational degrees of freedom. These mooring systems can spread out over many kilometers. They consist of anchors, heavy chains and nylon ropes or steel cables, which are attached to the moored object. A displacement of the vessel with respect to the equilibrium position causes lowering or lifting of the heavy chain links from the ground and thus results in a changed restoring force.