Water Hammer Arresters use a compressible air cushion to control water hammer. The noise occurs when the flow of moving water is instantaneously stopped by a closing valve. This sudden stop results in a pressure spike behind the valve which acts like a tiny explosion inside the pipe. This pressure spike will reverberate throughout the plumbing system, rattling and shaking pipes, until it is absorbed. It has a sufficient pocket of air to absorb such a pressure spike, but if no pocket of air is present, expensive fixtures and appliances within the plumbing system will be damaged as they are left to absorb this pressure spike.
In water heated shell and tube vaporizers hot water from an outside source circulates through the shell, cryogen is vaporized through the tubes. It can be used either as part of a water circulating vaporizing system or as a stand-alone vaporizer. It is able to operate in either vertical or horizontal configuration. It is able to operate in either vertical or horizontal configuration. Capacity is dependent upon shell side water temperatures.