Weld fittings are used on permanent installations where process piping and equipment can be cleaned in place (CIP) and removal from the system is not required. These fittings are made from wrought materials and manufactured in both seamless and welded construction. In seamless fitting, the tubing or pipe is heated to a temperature at which the metal is workable and is forced over a mandrel into its final shape. The rough fitting is cooled and machined to apply bevels, then cleaned and marked. In welded fitting, a plate is cut to size and formed in dies. The two sides are welded together, X-rayed on the weld and then beveled. Fittings can also be manufactured from welded pipe in the same manner as seamless.