Thin-film are mechanically-aided, turbulent film devices. These evaporators rely on mechanical blades that spread the process fluid across the thermal surface of a single large tube. All thin-film evaporators have three major components: a vapor body assembly, a rotor, and a drive system. Product enters the feed nozzle above the heated zone and is transported by gravity and mechanically by the rotor in a helical bath down the inner heat transfer surface. The liquid forms a highly turbulent thin film or annular ring from the feed nozzle to the product outlet nozzle. Only a small quantity of the process fluid is contained in the evaporator at any instant. Residence times are low and gases or vapors are easily disengaged. The blades may act as foam breakers.