Pipeline integrity testing is carried out by filling the line with water and pressuring it to specified levels for a period of time. One by-product of this type of test is a huge volume of water, which is usually contaminated with organic materials. Another common form of pipeline integrity testing is known as intelligent pigging. A pig is a tool which is pumped through the pipeline for several purposes including to insure it is unobstructed & open, to perform maintenance tasks on the interior of the line or to conduct sophisticated monitoring procedures that identify to the client if an abnormality exists anywhere along the line's length.
Pipeline Interface Detector was initially developed for pipeline service as an outgrowth of an oceanographic in-strument which was used to measure sound velocity and other physical properties in deep-sea research. Engineers then adopted this technology and produced the first sonic interface detector for service in products pipelines in 1970. Pipeline interface detectors operate by precisely measuring the velocity at which ultrasonic pulses travel over a liq-uid path of known dimension. Sound velocity is a unique physical property of materials, as are density and viscosity.
Pipeline pigging is defined as the propelling of a projectile through a pipeline to push the contents out. Pigging is utilized to flush out debris & build-up, scrape & clean the interior pipe walls and batch various products through a piping system. It is performed during new construction and pipeline repair or modification. Pigging is also essential in areas of de-commissioning, abandonment and subsequent removal of pipelines. Pigging is the preferred method for improving the flow and restoring the pipeline to its required capacities.